Tarzan, the famous ape-man created by Edgar Rice Burroughs in 1912, had given his name to an illustrated World Publishing in 1941 in the free zone, of 34 numbers. Before the war, he was the main hero of the newspaper "Junior" long subtitled "The Journal of Tarzan", published by the Paris Edition Company. After the war, the World Publishing Cino Del Duca took over the title for a weekly large circulation that would excite the youth of the time on two series for seven years, from 1946 to 1953.
The first issue came out on newsstands Thursday, Sept. 1946 with 19 at any lord (the
jungle) all honor, Tarzan first color page. It is the daily strip Rex Maxon, published in the United States in 1943, where Jane often occupies the spotlight. Tarzan will save a kidnapping, fight against drug traffickers and thieves diamond protect a young orphan in distress and fight hunters who want to kill Tikar, a pet lion. All this in a continuous narrative to No. 21, without really separate episodes. The design is often very schematic (see the front page of the lion No. 9, which is similar to a rat standing on its hind legs and the head of a lioness at No. 18, which is like nothing). Yet Rex Maxon performs daily strip since 1929, when he succeeded Harold Foster. Edgar Rice Burroughs reproached him with great indulgence, lack of documentation ... In this first issue, fortunately, two remarkable works made their appearance: Batman, Frenchified in Die Fledermaus, and Les Misérables René Giffey after Victor Hugo.
Batman was created in the United States in May 1939 "Detective Comics" by Bob Kane and Bill Finger drawing for the scenario to compete with Superman. The main character, Batman is a richissirne citizen named Bruce Wayne who, dressed as a bat, night fight against organized crime. It evolves into a megalopolis, Gotham City, escorted from May 1940 his ward Dick Grayson named Robin. In France, Batman appears in "The Great Adventures" in the name of the Avenger in 1940, then in "The Bold" in 1941, where Robin is considered a boy. In the weekly "Tarzan" was wrongly printed "text and drawings Brantonne" to the right of the title, the author, without any doubt, is Bob Kane. Mystification going to scratch the signature of the latter to be replaced by that of the French designer. In addition, although Batman appears in black and white, frame accompanying nocturnal effects are systematically removed.
Les Misérables René Giffey are inspired by the film of Raymond Bernard (released in three episodes in 1933). Giffey performs first two plates in black and white of a twenty thumbnails per number to No. 15. Then the following week, when creating Buffalo Bill, Les Misérables go to a board in black and white and in color from the 17. This huge mural will last nearly three years with several highlights: the flight of Jean Valjean and Cosette child through Paris before Haussmann Boulevard Hospital in the convent of Bernardine (No. 49-52) the ambush mounted against Jean Valjean and Thenardier by the band in jondrene Gorbeau (No. 77-80), the death of Gavroche before the barricade of the Rue Mondétour (No. 130) and, especially, the Battle of Waterloo (No. 24-28, strips 222-237). Mentioned in some unforgettable for young readers at the time headlights scenes, the last battle of Napoleon against the European states coalition is returned with astonishing verisimilitude thanks to a nervous cutting and consummate art of the ellipse. It is true that Giffey was helped by the excellent adaptation of Martial Bouin, but a century later by Victor Hugo himself developed its intrigues and narration with the foreknowledge of film editing and therefore comics. And this is probably why as Jean Fourié that "Hugo had the chance to not only not be betrayed by the comic, but to see his novels and translated acquire a kind of new dimension of second life."
The band has fascinated young readers of the time. Some, indeed, have never fully recovered from this incursion into their imaginary child of romantic breath running from box to box, weeping over the martyrdom of Fantine, Marius loving, quivering with Cosette, Javert and fleeing his henchmen, singing on the barricades with Gavroche or falling in full cavalry charge at Waterloo with Colonel Baron Pontmercy.
FLÈCHAUVENT, BUFFALO BILL AND Salvator
Also in this first issue of September 1946, "Tarzan" published Flèchauvent reporter Jacques Souriau. The latter is best known as an illustrator between the two wars in textbooks and Delagrave Hatier and as a cartoonist in "Red Hat" (1914), "Fantasio" (1920-1924), etc.. In "Pierrot", he signed short animal bands (Grey Manes, 1938) and participated in the war to complete stories "Papers of Ulysses" (The sparkling River, 1942) and "Selections prowess." Flèchauvent reporter is his first comic to follow important. Uncomfortable with the color at first, it improves to No. 17 when it goes to black and white. There, thanks to the use of thin inclined at 45 ° hatch, he practiced with skill games of shadow and light that give these journalistic adventures a certain cachet.
At the beginning of "Tarzan," the editorial section is limited to only a half-page with the heading "Death for vive la France." Almost every week, a Resistance hero is entitled to a biography with photo or drawing of the head of the person concerned. Louis-Hugues Citroën Guy Moquet and actor Aimos are among the best known of this brave gallery which end at No. 95. Later, an anthology begins the "Great French" in late February 1949 No. 127 with Saint-Exupéry, followed Commandant Charcot (No. 128), Édouard Branly (No. 129). It becomes "The Great Men" with Eiffel (No. 130), Mermoz (No. 131), Edison (No. 140) etc.. and "The Glories of the World" with Duguesclin (No. 186).
"Tarzan" will remain virtually unchanged until the end of 1946. December 31 comes in colors Buffalo Bill René Giffey, the only band that will last longer than the paper, since it will continue in "Intrepid 2nd series" until 1960. Many writers participate in this epic Western, Mr. Lirnat, J. Prado, L. Bornert, J. Lhérisson etc.., Describing a Buffalo Bill humanist friend of the Indians and wildlife conservationist, far removed from reality. Giffey, always comfortable in pageants, recreates the atmosphere of the West in the nineteenth century with great authenticity. In a style of extreme brevity, always looking for the characteristic detail that won the support of the reader, he built a bunch of great originality, considered by many as one of the masterpieces of the ninth art.
At No. 25, the first science fiction band made its debut in "Tarzan." This is Augustan Liquois Salvator, which is presented as "a member of the French Academy of Image." It was already well known in the genre with anticipation Towards the unknown in "The Bold" (1943-1944) Worlds and the first episode of War on Land in "Coq Hardi" (1946-1947). Salvator, a superhero in French, changing the seabed in a fight against Neptunas no thank you, master of an underwater city. At No. 36, a new episode carries the deepest of New Guinea, where he confronts antediluvian animals before they measure the wicked who are experimenting on humans in a secret factory. Judicious use of volumes and colors and all futuristic equipment, very forties, give the band a delightfully retro charm.
DANGEROUS MISSION, LITTLE BEAVER AND ROBIN HOOD
In April, 1947, No. 29, began dangerous mission, became known at No. 45, which will last more than four years Sacrifices. It is first an adventure supporters in Savoy during the Occupation. Alain Borel, whose mother was arrested by the Germans because of a traitor, is transformed into the Waffen SS to escape from a concentration camp. The history of blood and tears was designed in Italy "Intrepido" in 1945 under the title Cuore Garibaldino by Vittorio Cossio on scenario Luciana Peverelli, replaced by GL Fernandez for episodes of late.
In June, 1947, No. 39, The Extraordinary Adventures of Little Beaver start in full screen colors. This is Red Ryder created in the United States in 1938 by Fred Harman and already known in France under the title Red Cavalier in "Junior" (1939) and King of the Wild West in " The Adventurous "(1939) and "The Bold" (1941). This courageous cowboy occasionally gives a helping hand to the sheriff and works in her aunt's ranch near Rimrock in Colorado with her adopted son, a small Navajo orphan, Little Beaver (Castor Small). The action takes place after the last Indian wars in the nineteenth century ending. Accurate and documented, Fred Harman favors hatches and shadow games and built boards perfectly prepared with a sense of movement. He inspired many cartoonists whose Jijé.
At No. 54 "Tarzan" in September 1947 Jacques Souriau just finished Flechauvent reporter and immediately begins Robin Hood. These are the adventures of the famous off-the-law of Sherwood Forest in the struggle against the Normans in the pay of Prince John Lackland traitor, usurper of the throne of Richard the Lion Heart. On a scenario Renaud Fontenay, this charming medieval series full of twists lasted until March 1949, before being reborn with new episodes four years later in the second series of "Tarzan," and continue "Hurrah! "Until May 1959, then completed by Mouminoux. Playing nicely chiaroscuro and cons-day in a story teeming with undergrowth and underground, focusing on details in close-ups especially for faces: high cheekbones, chins volunteers and powerful jaws (not to mention the mustache fangs Little John), Jacques Souriau gives these adventures in black and white an undeniable stamp of authenticity.
The year 1947 ends with a curious episode of Batman where Bruce Wayne must disguise himself as Robin Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette to neutralize a dangerous mobster during a masked ball. Everything will jump in dress basket eighth floor of a building in a canvas by firefighters. At No. 71, January 25, 1948, the series finally left the newspaper despite an insert announcing the provisional end of The Bat and his return in a few weeks.
In April 1948, at 83, is starting a new western band, Tom Mix, American comic book of the company Fawcett transposed band to follow.
TARZAN A Pellucidar
Meanwhile, still in pencil Rex Maxon Tarzan continued his adventures in succession facing a mad scientist who wants to turn it into prehistoric man (No. 21-53), hunters who kidnap Jane (No. 64), a forest fire (No. 78-79). He loses his memory and then covered the last strips of Maxon is complete. After Lehti, Reinman and Celardo at No. 81, Hogarth takes time for the series in the middle of the first page. And then, of course, graphics exchange completely. And above all a fantasy world is taking place when Tarzan finds himself in the subterranean city of Mahars, the nightmare world in the center of the Earth in the Burroughs novel Tarzan and Pellucidar.
At No. 92, the drawing clearer, is taken by Seymour and Dan Barry brothers. The episode
Pellucidar ends at No. 94. Become obese as a pencil hack fortunately remained unknown Tarzan then goes in search of eye Rao. Then Rubimor and John Lehti take over to No. 125 with "Tarzan episode invincible. "The next week, as one of his companions asked the ape-man about his origins, the direction of" Tarzan "moves on to the reissue of old tapes of Hal telling the children and youth of our hero.
David Copperfield, JESS JAMES AND CAPTAIN Risquetout
Meanwhile, David Copperfield started at No. 101 in August 1948. This honest adaptation of Dickens' novel is due to Henry C. Kiefer, one of the authors of comic books "Classics Illustrated" based in the United States in 1941 by Albert L. Kanter.
In October 1948, at No. 107, a new western band enters the newspaper. This is Jess James, the beloved after the movie from 20th Century Fox made in 1939 by Henry King, with Tyrone Power and Henry Fonda and released in France under the title Le Brigand bandit beloved. Adaptation is signed Fronval George (1904-1975), specialist of the American West, writer of Buffalo Bill Brantonne in "The Great Adventure" (1940), Tom Mix (1948), Zorro in the "Collection Hurrah "and one of the many authors of Buffalo Bill Giffey appearing in" Tarzan. " Later, he will sign books on western Dargaud, become responsible for the "Hunter Illustrated" and work to "Phoenix." The influence of the Red Ryder Harman arises in graphics Vera (unknown historians BD) author also an animal comic strip, Coco the Terrible, in "The Great Adventures" in 1941 and paper album, The Extraordinary Achievements of Sancho Panza, probably published the same year.
January 2, 1949, began the Captain Risquetout Groux brothers. With sides very Errol Flynn, Risquetout lives of heroic adventures on the pirate ship,] olly-Boss, where Captain Bill Doggy is a brute with the head of Cheri Bibi and the second a misshapen dwarf nicknamed Crab. Served by a nervous cutting scenario Prado keeps the reader in suspense for eleven months, also thanks to the talent of Groux brothers also ignored encyclopedias comics. Specialists of piracy, they will realize, along the same year, Captain Blood in "Intrepid 1st series' later The Secret Island (1955) in" Girl "and The Republic of pirates in" World Adventures "( 1959).
TARZAN IN PARIS THOMEN GIFFEY IN THE CIRCUS AND eighty-THREE
We left Tarzan in pencil Foster at No. 126. The episode is titled Tarzan
Paris and tells the childhood of our hero, it is the story in pictures broadcast in fifty-four American newspapers from January 1929 as an illustration of the novel by Burroughs with a text caption under the picture. To fully justify the Paris title, false adventure is added to 138 and 139, designed by Brantonne to allow the hommesinge to climb the Eiffel Tower. The latest images are then deleted Foster and John Lehti back, continuing on page 8 of the episode # 140 Invincible Tarzan, where it was interrupted at 125.
Paul Reinman replace] onn Lehti at No. 147 (strip in 2959) and No. 153 of August 1949 intervenes again Hogarth with his board Sunday ascent. Under the title Tarzan Avenger, it comes after the episode ended No. 4 "The first series Fearless." Reinman is back with his daily strip at No. 159. Continued slave traders, primitive men and leopard men succeed to No. 178. Then again, we are treated to a brief reappearance of the board Sunday Hogarth with Ononoes episode, so pygmy bighead that the censorship of the time forced to redraw. We leave to No. 184 to find the daily strip Reinman with the adaptation of the novel Tarzan and the City of Gold. New change, the designer at No. 193 with Cardy (Nicolas Viscardy).
Meanwhile, other bands have made their entry into the weekly. End of February 1949, to 127, two strips on the third page, begins Cirque Tintamarre, the only comic strip of the newspaper. Its author, Thomen be his last published story (he died the following year at Saint-Cloud). Creator of Charlie in "Cri-Cri" in 1921, he started as a humorous illustrator in 1899 in "Smile." Thereafter, he was noticed by bédéphiles with Snow White (1939) in "Girl." He staged by two clowns, Ocarina and Kazoo, in extravagant adventures where all the characters, including animals, appear disguised.
At No. 133 in April 1949, began The Hawk, an Italian band that will last nearly three years. It is designed by Vittorio Capitan Sparuiero Cossio. For this story privateer, he enlisted G. Fantoni and Elia Cavernelli as a writer.
On 29 May 1949, René Giffey finished Les Misérables which lasted from the first issue, or one hundred and forty weeks.
While still continuing Buffalo Bill, Giffey immediately connects the following week with the adaptation of a new masterpiece of Victor Hugo: Ninety-Thirteen. History is full of cases of conscience with the Marquis de Lantenac that engages the Republicans to save children from a fire, with the incorruptible Cimourdain guillotined by his adopted son Gawain, too indulgent, before committing suicide. As for Les Misérables, symbiosis is achieved between the designer and novelist. Concern pageant, the inimitable way of planting a decor, staging characters energize the story include the young reader of the time the lyrical evocation of the tragedy involving chouans and Republicans.
Author: Michel Denni